Paradise Found

What’s in Mrs. Hale’s Receipts for the Million 1857?

To extract grease from clothes scrape off all the grease that you can with a knife; then lay over the spot a thick brown paper and press it with a warm iron.

The only grease I’ve had to contend with the last twenty four hours was from my plate lunch. Fortunately, it dripped on my Honolulu Weekly, not my writing.  Part of the reason I’m here is to relax with family, research and write. I walked all over Waikiki today, getting my bearings for the Hawaii Writer’s Conference that’s coming and wandered through the historic Royal Hawaiian Hotel. You can sometimes get jaded about Waikiki and what it is, but it is also a place worth honoring for its past and what it means historically to the people of Hawaii.  I get it.

It’s also incredibly beautiful with its white sands, brilliant turquoise water and Diamond Head.  Just ignore the masses out on the streets and the big hotels.  You’re a writer. You can edit them out.

Eventually, I found the cafe I discovered four years ago on my last visit and plunked my writing folder down at the window.  An iced coffee and biscotti and writing roomI was ready to sharpen my pencil and revise.  What a life!  I hope to come back to this place often in the next week.

Tomorrow I get the grand tour of Washington Place, the governor’s residence today, but once that of Queen Liliuokulani.  After that, a tour of Iolani Palace, the home of Hawaiian kings and queens and the Mission Houses. All this is history not often encountered by the average tourist and its a shame.  It’s Hawaii’s story and its 200 plus years of contact with the European world. I’m writing about it in my novel Mist-shi-mus that I’m currently revising and fact checking. Hawaii meets the Pacific NW.

So I’m researching, meeting new friends in the museum world and revising. I hope to get back to the window view soon.  Aloha nui loa.


Walking History and the Relief of Feet

What’s in Mrs. Hale’s Receipts for the Million 1857?

957. The Feet– Should be washed in cold water very morning, and wiped very dry.  Stockings, if too small, cripple the feet as surely as small shoes.  Always be careful to get the foot room enough, and you will be rarely trouble with corns.

Honolulu ship  Oct 1852I’ve been thinking about feet and shoes and what I’m going to do about them.  I’m leaving for Hawaii in a few days and want to be prepared for a long visit, which includes walking.  A lot.  Manoa Falls, the north shore, the Koolaus.  I’m looking forward to the chance to see again truly historic places such as Kawaihoa Church, Mission Houses Museum, Iolani Palace as well new ones I’ve not seen before.

I worked at the museum many years ago and got my start exploring history with young children. “Where’s the TV?” was the usual question from a second grader.  I showed them lives of children from the past and how they might relate to them today.  Yes, they really hauled in water from three miles away and strained it through coral rock so they could drink.  Honolulu was very dry and dusty then.

There are grand ties there to the Northwest, something that I have always followed.  Going again will help me set the scenes in the NW novel that I’m rewriting.  I will also use the time to introduce my sons to the beautiful places I haunted as a young woman with the love of my life so they will remember too. Mission House HonoluluWhen I can, I’ll find a spot to write on my own. There’s a great cafe I found last time just right for the muse.

I’m also off to the Hawaii Writer’s Conference where I’ll be volunteering.  And walking as I help attendees.

Walking shoes or sandals? No stockings please.  I promise to wash my feet in cold water every morning.

Catching up

What’s in Mrs. Hale’s Receipts for the Millions 1857?

3712.  Prevention of Baldness –Eau de Cologne two ounces, tincture of cantharides two dachms, oil of rosemary, oil of nutmeg and oil of lavender, each ten drops. To be rubbed on the bald part of the head every night.

Just a short note.  Had a fantastic time at the English Encampment 150th anniversary of the Pig War.  Got over on a Friday evening, in time for dinner and set up in a tent, then up early for coffee and breakfast from Dutch ovens and stoves.

The Hawaiian Chief fired off two shots at 8:00 AM. Our battery returned. The rest of day was busy, topped off with a grand ball in a packed barracks and a thunder and lightening storm.  Father Ted and all the fixings I taught school all day as Miss Lydia. Guests from the British Consul, Mary Gilbert and a representative from the British Royal Navy and his wife made presentations and joined in the dance.

Dinner was a crowd of soldiers, Royal Marines, HBC employees, Fort Nisqually folk, grand and not so grand ladies and the crews from the Lady Washington and Hawaiian Chief, looking somewhat like pirates and very hungry after a day of rowing tourists out to their ships. (Did I actually see someone boarding the Lady Washington on Sunday for a sail dressed like Johnny Depp?)

Home late Sunday evening after two days of visitors numbering nearly 4,000?  The ferry was crowded with tourists and a truck suspicously carrying the wheels and parts to two battery guns.

Ah, history.  I breathe it and write about. A grand research weekend indeed. I now know how a longboat operates. Those oars are heavy!

Miss Lydia’s Academy

Miss Lydia's AcademyWhat’s in Mrs. Hale’s Receipt for the Million 1857?

Ink—To make five gallons of good ink, costing but twelve-and-a half cents, take half a pound of extract of logwood, and dissolve it in five gallons of hot water, and add half an ounce of bichromate potash. Strain and bottle it.

Just a quick note. I’m off to Friday Harbor in the afternoon where I’ll be participating in the 150th anniversary of the Pig War. I’ll be Miss Lydia for the 12th time as I teach reading, writing and comportment

Lighting the Way

What’s in Mrs. Hales Receipts for the Million 1857?

Things to Know

2024: Why do candles and lamps “spirit” when rain is at hand?

2025: Because the air is filled with vapor and the humidity penetrates the wick, where (being formed into steam) it expands suddenly and produces a little explosion.

Anyone writing historical fiction or even a non-fiction piece ought to know about the technology of the times.  Nothing can bump a reader out of a scene faster than having a character light a candle with matches in 1630. Sometimes it’s best to create a timeline just for technology just to keep ahead of the curve.

I’ve been wondering about candles. I have a price list for 1858 for a store in what was Whatcom, Washington Territory.  I know that spermaceti Food Prices 1858candles came from the head wax of a sperm whale and was considered a step above a tallow candle when it came to longevity– it didn’t smell like stinky tallow candles either. But what of Belmont sperm and adamantine candles listed so often in ads in the Northwest and San Francisco?

Turns out they were varieties of candle made from stearic acid processed from either coconut oil or tallow.  First adamantine candles. These candles were made with stearic acid which was separated out of fat in tallow. This process of creating this acid was discovered in 1811 and improved the quality of the candles used in the home.  It was blended into the wax to harden it.  It got its name as it looked like stone.  It burned longer and well.

A Belmont sperm candle has nothing to do with  sperm whale oil.  Before 1830, there was a type of stearin candle made from  coconut oil.  Its main drawback was that it stank when the light was extinguished. Then in 1830, William Wilson of Edward Price & Company in the Belmont section of London began to make stearin candles using a combination of palm oil and coconut stearin.  These candles were considered better than tallow candles, but inferior to adamantine candles. They were, however cheaper than beeswax and spermaceti candles which would continue to bring top dollar.

I’ve been working on a scene in my novel in which the officers from both Camp San Juan (American) and the royal marine encampment (British) get together for a ball after a horse race.  Lanterns have been set up everywhere, the band and dancers up on boards. What a fairy scene it will be, as long as I keep my lighting straight and the night without a cloud in the sky.

When I go back to English Camp in week or so for the grand 150th, I’ll be taking my lantern with me and my flashlight.  Just in case I have to camp back in the woods. English Camp at dusk2

Firing up the stove

What’s in Mrs. Hale’s Receipts for the Million 1857?

130. To light a Coal Fire– A considerable saving of time and trouble might often be effected, if housemaids would attend to the following rules in lighting a fire: Clear the grate well from ashes and cinders; then lay at the bottom of it a few lumps of fresh coal, about the size of ducks’ eggs, so as not wholly to obstruct the air passing between the bars on which they are placed.

Mrs. Hale obviously never came to the Pacific Northwest where there was an abundance of trees.  Though coal was highly sought out by companies out of San Francisco, in part for the burgeoning maritime trade and steamboats and ships in that busy port, it was not  for cooking.  Until sources were found on the West Coast, coal had to come all the way around the Horn from the Eastern States.

The discovery of coal on Bellingham Bay in 1852 caused a great deal of excitement, but extracting it was expensive.  The Sehome Mine eventually became the leading  employer on the bay, but again, its coal was not  for heating and cooking in homes. Fort Nisqually kitchen

The cast iron cook stove was invented during the 1830s and became the desire of many a housewife. The Hudson Bay Company’s trading forts began using them early on. Narcissa Whitman out in Oregon country (near present day Walla Walla, WA) got  a little Hudson’s Bay stove in1841.  It had the oven directly over the fire box. Two oblong kettles were on either side.

This later model in the picture is at Fort Nisqually, which was a HBC farming outfit.  Both stoves ran on wood.

On Friday, I’ll be taking off for Friday Harbor and English Camp where I’ll be presenting a talk on 19th cookery and housewifery. I’ll be cooking in Dutch ovens, starting my fire with lucifer matches and some shavings from pitch wood, which comes from old Douglas fir trees.  Laid in with cedar tinder, these shavings can raise a fire quickly like Boy Scout water.  This year, I may get a chance to make coffee on the new 1850s stove the park acquired. It will be a mix of charcoal and wood to keep it going.

But, armed with sour dough, butter churn and my pot lifter I will make the best batch of biscuits ever on that old wood fire. File0015

Remembering Gettysburg

What’s in Mrs. Hale’s Receipts for the Million 1857?

To write secretly on a pocket Handkerchief.- Dissolve alum in pure water, and write upon a fine white handkerchief, which, when dry will not be seen at all.  But when you would have the letters visible, dip the handkerchief in pure water, and it will be of a wet appearance all over, except where it was written on with the alum water.

As far as I know, my great -grandfather never wrote a secret letter to anyone during the Civil War, but he did record his thoughts in his small pocket  journal. For all five years he was involved.

One of the most dramatic was at the Battle of Gettysburg, an important turning point in the struggle and most revered.  But you’d never know it from his comments. They seem so calm. Here is what he writes:

Wednesday July 1stGettysburg-Dead-Soldiers-th

Had orders to move at 8 AM. Proceeded on the  road to Gettysburgh–soon heard cannonading in that direction and on arrival found a part of our corps engaging the enemy, about 20,000 strong.  A severe engagement followed. Our forces were driven back by superior numbers.

Thursday  July 2nd

The Rebs hold the town with many prisoners and all the wounded. Have had a busy day in the hospital, that of the 2nd Dev. containing about 300 wounded. Am now in the Rebels clutches as they surround the town.

Friday, July 3rd

Passed over the battle ground of the 1st to look after the wounded. Found a great number.  Spent the day among the  Rebels. This has been the hardest day’s fighting.  The cannonading was terrific.

Saturday, July 4thimages

This morning the citizens and prisoners of Gettysburgh were greeted with the welcome news that the Rebels had left town.  Soon our skirmishers made their appearance and all seemed to feel greatly relieved. There has been no fighting today.  Went to the hospital on the Baltimore pike.

Sunday, July 5th

Spent the day at Div.  Hospital.  News this morning that the Rebs have retreated. Many wounded Rebs came in today.  Were ordered to follow the corps this evening. Rode till after dark then went to Mr Fahnertoes and spent the night.

I’ve read these entries since a girl.  We were never sure what “Am now in the Rebels clutches as they surround the townmeant.

A couple of years ago, I contacted the historian at Gettysburg National Park and he wrote:

” Your great grandfather was indeed an assistant surgeon with the 11th Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry and was, for a few days, a prisoner under Confederate guard during the Battle of Gettysburg.

The 11th Pennsylvania, part of the Union First Corps, was involved in the fighting northwest of Gettysburg on July 1, 1863. Once the battle had commenced, temporary field hospitals were established in Gettysburg, the first being in churches and other public buildings. According to our records, most of the surgeons from the Second Division of the First Corps set up in Christ Lutheran Church on Chambersburg Street, where they treated wounded soldiers throughout the night and during the ensuing days of battle. It was on the steps of this church that Chaplain Horatio Howell of the 90th Pennsylvania Infantry was shot and killed by Confederate soldiers, a scene witnessed by your great grandfather. The town fell to control of the Confederate “Army of Northern Virginia” on July 1 when the Union forces retreated through Gettysburg and established a strong position on Cemetery Hill south of town. The southern forces withdrew from Gettysburg overnight of July 4-5 after which the many hospitals there fell back into control of the Union Army.”

History is so close sometimes.

So I’ll remember WF Osborn, a civilian who went to school in Chicago to become a doctor and eventually became a full surgeon in the Union Army. A native of Fair Chance, Pennsylvania, how did he feel about the battle and his capture 146 years ago today?

The letters are still around, but 50 years later he wrote from Gettysburg:

“July 3, 1913—My Dear Wife: Barring our honeymoon trip I am having the time of my life. Fifty years ago, three hours earlier, I was engaged in battle on Seminary Ridge. Now both sides are in smiles. Three cheers for a united country.

This July 4th, three cheers.

Guest Writer: Mike Vouri and the 150 Anniversary of the Pig War

Mike Vouri as Pickett

What’s in Mrs. Hale’s Receipts for the Million 1857?

Choice of Reading. Never keep  house without books. Life is not life to any great purpose where books are not.  Read on any subject connected with your own pursuits.  A good book is a safe refuge in idle hours.

June 15, 1859. San Juan Island, Pacific Northwest. An American settler named Lyman Cutlar shot and killed a pig belonging to the Hudson’s Bay Company. The boar had been rooting in his garden. From that incident two nations, Great Britain and a young United States, nearly came to blows. This summer, the San Juan Island National Historical Park will celebrate the 150th anniversary of the historic event and its peaceful resolution.

Today, I’m happy to welcome my friend Mike Vouri, Park Pig War book coverRanger/Historian at the San Juan Island National Historical Park who knows quite a bit about the Pig War and George Pickett of Gettysburg fame, who was in the thick of the incident.  In addition to his duties in the park, Mike is a historian, actor, playwright and writer of several books on George Pickett, the Pig War and San Juan Island.

Mike, you began your career as a journalist. What led you to history and in particular to George Pickett and the stories around the Pig War? How did you end up at the national park?

After years as a journalist, including nine in the Air Force, I got interested in history and went back to school for it.  I worked as a reporter for the Skagit Argus and the Bellingham Herald and eventually became the public affairs person for the Whatcom Museum in Bellingham, Washington. I was there for six years. During that time I curated a couple of exhibits. One of them was George Pickett and the Frontier Army Experience.

At first I wasn’t too keen about it, but as I learned more I found that there was tremendous interest in the man. (note: George Pickett was stationed at Fort Bellingham in present-day Bellingham Washington from 1856-1859 before going to San Juan Island at the start of the Pig War) The show ran from October 1994 to April 1995 and had a number of important objects in it, including two battle flags, Pickett’s sabre and reenacting uniforms. In preparing for the exhibit, I came in contact with Richard Seltzer, considered the top researcher on George  E. Pickett. His book, Faithfully and Forever Yours documents Pickett’s activities on the east coast.  He’s gone on to write more, but at the time, Seltzer knew little about Pickett’s role out here.  I showed him that while he helped me locate sources, objects and contacts. We have become good friends and the show was a great success.

In 1995, you moved to San Juan Island to become a ranger at San Juan Island National Historical Park. Not long after you researched and wrote the popular one-man show Life and Times of General George Pickett. Folksinger Michael Cohen matched the emotional tone of the play with period songs as well provide a supporting role. How did it start?

Originally, it was three hours long.  After its first performance in Friday Harbor,  San Juan Island, I decided to knock the first act down after being advised to make it funny and sad.

It’s a wonderful play. I’ve seen it four times now, one for our Save Our History grant in Bellingham WA in 2007.

It will be performed this summer for the last time on July 10 in Friday Harbor and at Fort Vancouver, Vancouver, Washington — time to be announced.  I’m retiring it.

You have been a pretty prolific writer in the past few years. In addition to a book on George Pickett in the Northwest, there is the OUTPOST OF THE EMPIRE, a book on the Royal Marine encampment on San Juan Island which came out in 2004.  And you published a history of FRIDAY HARBOR with your wife Julia Vouri a couple of months ago.

What I would like to talk about is your book THE PIG WAR which came out in 2008. This is the most comprehensive account of the Pig War with never before published pictures from both military camps.  Pictures include those from the Delacombe family whose ancestor, Captain William Delacombe, commanded the royal marine camp from 1867 on. How did that come about?

Pure serendipity. Got an email out of the blue from the wife of the great- grandson of Delacombe. They couldn’t travel from England so they sent me  a CD with pictures from Captain Delacombe’s family album . I learned a lot about the royal marine site from the pictures. There is a view of the hill behind the encampment taken from Guss Island. And we confirmed that there was a long boat at the camp.

There are also wonderful pictures of American Camp after it closed and a painting done by a British midshipman onboard the Satellite showing Pickett’s first camp.

Arcadia Publishing requires a large volume of photographs. Your interview in the San Juan Journal says that there are 190 photos in the book. I remember you telling me that you were a bit surprised by that and had to drop some text to meet their specifications. i.e. more pictures, a lot less text.  How did you reconcile that? Did text translate to caption?

As Arcadia books are image driven with limited space for text (that is, only 350 words per chapter) it is critical to sustain the narrative with captions. Therefore, they cannot be repetitive. Each is composed anew.

I thought the book  moves very smoothly. The pictures are wonderful.  I learned some new things myself.  Amazing that  some building from both camps were preserved at all.

The Pig War is a real historical event and this summer will be the 150th anniversary. For the past eleven years, the park has presented English Encampment, a celebration of the peaceful occupation of the island by American and British military. Re-enactors come from here and Canada. Tell us what your plans are for this important celebration.

We are expecting a large turn out of reenactors from the US and Canada. One thing we are excited about is the participation of the Lady Washington and Hawaiian Chieftain. They will participate for the first time. Visitors will be able to book a three hour trip on each ship on Sunday. They will anchor off English Camp during the weekend event.

There are other talks and events during the whole summer.

Yes.  Check the park’s calendar.

Thanks, Mike. I’ll see you all soon under my favorite Big Leaf maple.

Logger Coffee

What’s in Mrs. Hales’ Receipts for the Million 1857?Green coffee beans3American soldier

Substitute for Cream in Tea or Coffee. — Beat the white of an egg to a froth, put to it a very small lump of butter, and mix well. Then turn the coffee to it gradually, so that it may not curdle. If perfectly done, it will be an excellent substitute for cream. For tea, omit the butter, using only the egg. This might be of great use at sea, as eggs can be preserve fresh in various ways.

I’m preparing for my annual trip to San Juan Island to demonstrate 19th century folkways at English Camp. This year I hope to roast my coffee beans on the fire and then make logger coffee.  It is something 19th century folk did all the time.  The soldiers stationed at American Camp and in camps throughout the Civil War did it in their pans.

Mrs. Hale’s, unfortunately was no help as she assumes that everyone knows HOW to do it. Coffee, after all, is for the literary and sedentary (See earlier post) My copy of  The American Frugal Housewife is AWOL off my research bookshelf.  So I went down to our local farmer’s market and spoke to an Ethiopian immigrant who has a popular food stand there. I was told by a local coffee roaster that she does it every day at home.  It’s tradition.

“Just put some green coffee beans in a  pan on top of the stove on medium heat and it will roast.”

“How will I know it’s done?”

“The color will look right.  You will be able to tell.”

I suppose that it will smell good too. I’ll practice this week.  Next step: Should I use a rifle butt like the soldiers did or a coffee grinder? Hmm.

Here’s the receipt for logger coffee. Notice a green alder “chip” off a freshly felled tree.  It works.  It settles the grounds and I believe, takes the acidity out of coffee.

Logger coffee (Old Pacific NW receipt)

1. Fill pot halfway with water.

2. Add an alder “chip” preferably green.

3. Bring it to a boil.

4. Throw in about 2/3 cup of coffee.

5. Bring to a full boil and let boil for 1 Minute.

6. Remove from heat.

7. Check to see if grounds have settled.

Enjoy!

Mrs. Hale’s Receipts for the Million

I’ve decided to add something to this blog.  Every year for the past thirteen years, I have gone to English Camp on San Juan Island and have demonstrated mid- 19th century folkways.  There’s a lot of butter making and biscuit cutting going on — as well as spinning and candle dipping.

Mrs Hale's receipts cover

Leading my understanding of what a housewife put up with is my great-grandmother’s receipt book, MRS.HALE’s RECEIPT’S FOR THE MILLION.  This delightful book is both charming and informative, filled with 4545 “receipts” that range from cleaning leather and churns, caring for the invalid and making coffee. Published in Philadelphia in 1857, my great grandmother surely found use for it as she made her way from Western Pennsylvania to Kansas to craft a life with her surgeon/lawyer husband.

I think we should all get a daily dose or least every time I post. So here’s what’s in MRS. HALE’s RECEIPTS for today:

COFFEE: The infusion of or decoction of the roasted seeds of the coffee-berry, when not too strong, is a wholesome, exhilarating, and strengthening beverage; and when mixed with a large proportion of milk, is a proper article of diet for literary and sedentary people. It is especially suited to persons advanced in age.

I think I’ll go get some.